Understanding the mechanism of how cholangiocytes (liver ductal cells) are activated upon liver injury and specified to hepatocytes would permit liver regenerative medicine. Here we achieved long-term in vitro expansion of mouse liver organoids by modulating signaling pathways with a combination of three small-molecule compounds. CHIR-99021, blebbistatin, and forskolin together maintained the liver organoids in bipotential stage with both cholangiocyte- and hepatocyte-specific gene expression profiles and enhanced capacity for further hepatocyte differentiation. By employing a chemical approach, we demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin, NMII–Rac, and PKA–ERK are core signaling pathways essential and sufficient for mouse liver progenitor expansion. Moreover, the advanced small-molecule culture of bipotential organoids facilitates the ex vivo investigation of liver cell fate determination and the application of organoids in liver regenerative medicine.