The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global public health emergency. Despite being caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), besides the lung, this infectious disease also has severe implications in the cardiovascular system. In this review, we summarize diverse clinical complications of the heart and vascular system, as well as the relevant high mortality, in COVID-19 patients. Systemic inflammation and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-involved signaling networking in SARS-CoV-2 infection and the cardiovascular system may contribute to the manifestations of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, integration of clinical observations and experimental findings can promote our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, which would aid in identifying and treating cardiovascular injury in patients with COVID-19 appropriately.