O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation) of intracellular proteins is a dynamic process broadly implicated in age-related disease, yet it remains uncharacterized whether and how O-GlcNAcylation contributes to the natural aging process. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and the opposing enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) control this nutrient-sensing protein modification in cells. Here, we show that global O-GlcNAc levels are increased in multiple tissues of aged mice. In aged liver, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) is among the most heavily O-GlcNAcylated proteins. CPS1 O-GlcNAcylation is reversed by calorie restriction and is sensitive to genetic and pharmacological manipulations of the O-GlcNAc pathway. High glucose stimulates CPS1 O-GlcNAcylation and inhibits CPS1 activity. Liver-specific deletion of OGT potentiates CPS1 activity and renders CPS1 irresponsive to further stimulation by a prolonged fasting. Our results identify CPS1 O-GlcNAcylation as a key nutrient-sensing regulatory step in the urea cycle during aging and dietary restriction, implying a role for mitochondrial O-GlcNAcylation in nutritional regulation of longevity.