Error-free mitosis depends on accurate chromosome attachment to spindle microtubules via a fine structure called the centromere that is epigenetically specified by the enrichment of CENP-A nucleosomes. Centromere maintenance during mitosis requires CENP-A-mediated deposition of constitutive centromere-associated network that establishes the inner kinetochore and connects centromeric chromatin to spindle microtubules during mitosis. Although previously proposed to be an adaptor of retinoic acid receptor, here, we show that CENP-R synergizes with CENP-OPQU to regulate kinetochore–microtubule attachment stability and ensure accurate chromosome segregation in mitosis. We found that a phospho-mimicking mutation of CENP-R weakened its localization to the kinetochore, suggesting that phosphorylation may regulate its localization. Perturbation of CENP-R phosphorylation is shown to prevent proper kinetochore–microtubule attachment at metaphase. Mechanistically, CENP-R phosphorylation disrupts its binding with CENP-U. Thus, we speculate that Aurora B-mediated CENP-R phosphorylation promotes the correction of improper kinetochore–microtubule attachment in mitosis. As CENP-R is absent from yeast, we reasoned that metazoan evolved an elaborate chromosome stability control machinery to ensure faithful chromosome segregation in mitosis.