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Microtubules composed of α4A undergo curved growth mainly mediated by its core structure
Lei Diao1 , Mingyi Liu1,2 , Yanling Liu1 , Xu Zhang2,3,4,* , Lan Bao1,2,4,*
1State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
2School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China
3Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210, China
4Guangdong Institute of Intelligence Science and Technology, Hengqin, Zhuhai 519031, China
*Correspondence to:Xu Zhang , Email:zhangx@sari.ac.cn Lan Bao , Email:baolan@sibcb.ac.cn
J Mol Cell Biol, Volume 15, Issue 1, January 2023, mjad004,  https://doi.org/10.1093/jmcb/mjad004

Dear Editor,

Microtubules consisting of α/β-tubulin dimers exhibit various shapes in different cell stages and cell types, which are important for their diverse roles in eukaryotic cells. Both α- and β-tubulin comprise multiple genes in vertebrates, e.g. mice have at least seven α-tubulin and eight β-tubulin genes. The distribution and expression of these isotypes vary widely among different tissues and developmental stages. Tubulin α1A is generally expressed in post-mitotic neurons and exhibits a decrease in postnatal and adult stages (Yue et al., 2014), while tubulin α4A is highly expressed in the brain and heart during later stages of development (Yue et al., 2014). In vitro studies have shown that purified recombinant α/β3 microtubules display a higher catastrophe frequency than α/β2B microtubules (Pamula et al., 2016), and GMPCPP-α1B/β2B microtubules are more stable and have more protofilaments than GMPCPP-α1B/β3 (Ti et al., 2018), suggesting that some tubulin isotypes affect microtubule properties. However, the effects of specific α-tubulin isotype on microtubule properties remain largely unknown.