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The many faces of p53: something for everyone
Arnold J. Levine*
Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
*Correspondence to:Arnold J. Levine, E-mail:
J Mol Cell Biol, Volume 11, Issue 7, July 2019, 524-530,

Forty years ago four research laboratories in London, Paris, New York/Bethesda, and Princeton uncovered the existence of the p53 protein (Deleo et al., 1979; Lane and Crawford, 1979; Linzer and Levine, 1979; Kress et al., 1979). Each laboratory came upon this protein for a different reason and with a different experimental approach that uncovered this unanticipated result. Together, the four papers permitted one to conclude the following: (i) in SV40-infected and transformed cells the SV40-encoded oncogene protein, the large T-antigen, formed a protein complex with a cellular-encoded protein of ~53000 daltons in size. (ii) This p53 protein was detected at high levels in a variety of transformed cells derived from viral, chemical, or inherited (teratocarcinomas) transformation events. (iii) Nontransformed cells expressed lower levels of the p53 protein. (iv) Animals bearing tumors produced antibodies directed against the p53 protein.