O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) is a highly dynamic and widespread post-translational modification (PTM) that regulates the activity, subcellular localization, and stability of target proteins. O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible PTM controlled by two cycling enzymes: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase and O-GlcNAcase. Emerging evidence indicates that O-GlcNAcylation plays critical roles in innate immunity, inflammatory signaling, and cancer development. O-GlcNAcylation usually occurs on serine/threonine residues, where it interacts with other PTMs, such as phosphorylation. Thus, it likely has a broad regulatory scope. This review discusses the recent research advances regarding the regulatory roles of O-GlcNAcylation in innate immunity and inflammation. A more comprehensive understanding of O-GlcNAcylation could help to optimize therapeutic strategies regarding inflammatory diseases and cancer.