Original Article

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p53 promotes AKT and SP1-dependent metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway that inhibits apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a Free
Lei Duan 1, Ricardo E. Perez 1, Ling Chen 2, Lothar A. Blatter 3, and Carl G. Maki 1,*
1 Department of Cell & Molecular Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
2 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shiyan Taihe Hospital, College of Biomedical Engineering, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, China
3 Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA *Correspondence to:Carl Maki, E-mail: Carl_Maki@rush.edu
J Mol Cell Biol, Volume 10, Issue 4, August 2018, Pages 331-340  https://doi.org/10.1093/jmcb/mjx051
Keyword: Nutlin, p53, MDM2, SP1, glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway

Nutlin-3a is a MDM2 antagonist and preclinical drug that activates p53. Cells with MDM2 gene amplification are especially prone to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis, though the basis for this is unclear. Glucose metabolism can inhibit apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Glucose metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) produces NADPH that can protect cells from potentially lethal reactive oxygen species (ROS). We compared apoptosis and glucose metabolism in cancer cells with and without MDM2 gene amplification treated with Nutlin-3a. Apoptosis in MDM2-amplified cells was associated with a reduction in glycolysis and the PPP, reduced NADPH, increased ROS, and depletion of the transcription factor SP1, which normally promotes PPP gene expression. In contrast, glycolysis and the PPP were maintained or increased in MDM2 non-amplified cells treated with Nutlin-3a. This was dependent on p53-mediated AKT activation and was associated with maintenance of SP1 and continued expression of PPP genes. Knockdown or inhibition of AKT, SP1, or the PPP sensitized MDM2-non-amplified cells to apoptosis. The data indicate that p53 promotes AKT and SP1-dependent activation of the PPP that protects cells from Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. These findings provide insight into how glucose metabolism reduces Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis, and also provide a mechanism for the heightened sensitivity of MDM2-amplified cells to apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a.